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Insulin

What is Insulin?

Insulin
Insulin
The whole human body needs energy. Energy comes into our bodies from sugar. This glucose is called sugar by name. Nature contains many types of carbohydrates such as galactose, maltose, lactose, etc., but the simplest carbohydrate is glucose.


Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas in our body and regulates blood sugar.

Who invented insulin?

Insulin was discovered in 1922 by Canadian physician Frederick Grant Banting and scientist Charles Best.

Insulin is a protein that is first synthesized using regenerated DNA technology

Insulin was discovered in 1921 by three University of Toronto scientists, Frederick Grant Banting, Charles B. Best, and J. J. R. Macleod.

Frederick Sanger was the first to determine the amino acid sequence of this protein. The first insulin was injected into a 14-year-old boy named Leonardo Thompson in 1922.

The teen had type 1 diabetes. Prior to the discovery of insulin, patients with type 1 diabetes usually did not live longer than a year or two. But Leonardo lived thirteen years later.

Where does insulin come from?
The hormone insulin is produced in beta cells in the archipelago of Langerhans.

The pancreas is located at the back of our stomach

Types of insulin:
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) classifies insulin into different categories according to its type of activity. As -

Immediate insulin - This is usually used before meals. This type of insulin starts to work about 15 minutes after the injection. Its effects can last for three to four hours.

Short-acting Insulin - This insulin is injected before meals. It begins to work 30 to 60 minutes after the injection and the effect lasts five to eight hours.

Internal Insulin - This type of insulin starts to work one to two hours after the injection and can last 14 to 16 hours.

Long-Term Insulin - This insulin cannot start working for about 2 hours after injection. Results may last 24 hours or more.

How insulin works:
Insulin is a hormone produced in your pancreas, the gland found in the back of your stomach. It uses glucose to give energy to our bodies. Glucose is a type of sugar found in foods high in carbohydrates.

After a meal, our digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates and converts them into glucose.

Glucose then enters your bloodstream through the lining of the small intestine. When glucose enters your bloodstream, insulin helps our body's cells absorb that glucose and use it to break down energy.

Insulin also helps maintain good glucose levels in a person's blood. When there is too much sugar in your blood, insulin tells your liver to store more sugar.

Stored glucose is not released until your blood sugar level is down. For example, when our body is under great stress during a meal or when we need to increase our energy levels, our blood glucose level drops. At that point, insulin releases glucose stored in the bloodstream from the liver

The function of the hormone insulin:
The main function of the hormone insulin is to control the level of glucose in the blood, especially when the level of glucose in the blood rises and is reduced to normal.

Insulin also does a lot of work:
Insulin increases the absorption of glucose into cells, that is, helps cells to absorb glucose.

Insulin stores glucose in the liver and muscle cells by converting it to glycogen. Glycogen synthesis from glucose is called glycogenesis

What is insulin made of?
Insulin was originally found in the milk of cattle and pigs.
Insulin found in animals is usually made from beef or pork preparations and has been used safely for many years to treat diabetes. Beef or pork pancreatic insulin is used safely. However, over the years, insulin production methods have become quite sophisticated. Recombinant DNA technology is now being used to make human insulin.

What is an insulin reaction?
Hypoglycemia is a condition in which blood sugar levels drop dramatically as a result of taking insulin. When this happens due to insulin taking, it is called an insulin reaction

If you exercise too much or do not eat enough, your blood sugar levels can drop dramatically, which may trigger insulin resistance. Some of the signs are -

Symptoms:

Fatigue

Inability to speak

Ajuluke

Confusion

Loss of consciousness

Convulsions

Thickness

Pale skin

What is insulin resistance?

Insulin resistance is a condition in which muscle, fat, and liver cells do not respond to the hormone insulin.

As a result, our blood glucose is not absorbed. As a result, blood glucose levels rise dramatically

To get out of this situation, the pancreas produces a lot of insulin and measures blood sugar levels.

People with obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes are more likely to develop insulin resistance.

Symptoms of insulin resistance:
Symptoms of insulin resistance are usually present

Blood pressure figures are 130/80 or higher

Glucose levels rise above 100 mg / dL

Triglyceride levels also rise above 150 mg / dL

Insulin resistance resistance

The following tests are used to determine insulin resistance. There are a few steps that can be taken to diagnose Insulin Resistance

First of all, your family history is known for this. Then your various physical tests like weight, blood pressure are all tested.

After that, you should do a blood test -

Plasma Diabetes Test - This test tests your blood sugar after you have not eaten for 6 hours.

Oral glucose tolerance test - After this test plasma sugar diet is given sugar or sugary liquid, after 2 hours a blood test is done again.

Hemoglobin A1c Test - This test gives you a detailed idea of your blood sugar level in the last 2-3 months.

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