Hyperglycemia: Causes, Symptoms &Treatment


Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, is an early symptom of diabetes and refers to improved blood sugar levels. Hyperglycemia can be prevented by appropriate diet, medication, and level control.

What is hyperglycemia?

Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, occurs in people with diabetes. There are many causes of diabetes with hyperglycemia with lead; These include low blood glucose levels to reduce the intake of food or physical activity, disease, actions, or inadequate administration of drugs. It is very important to treat hyperglycemia because without treatment hyperglycemia can have very serious consequences and lead to serious related symptoms; For example, diabetic coma can lead to direct admission to the emergency room. In the long run, persistent hyperglycemia, although not particularly severe, can affect the eyes, kidneys, nervous system, or heart.


Causes of hyperglycemia are directly related to hormone production. Insulin or maintenance in the blood during breakdown. This one molecule is glucose, one of the most important sources of energy for the body. Glucose spreads in the blood as soon as it is ingested. But without the help insulin is produced by the pancreas, the body's cells cannot absorb glucose. When more glucose is absorbed, the body needs more insulin to supply enough sugar to the cells. The blood sugar is administered to the cells until blood levels return to normal. Diabetes alters the effects of insulin on the body. Either the body does not produce enough insulin to process the blood sugar, or the body no longer responds normally to hormones, which also causes hyperglycemia.

Signs, complaints, and symptoms

Hyperglycemia can have very different symptoms. When blood glucose levels improve, the first symptoms are fatigue and fatigue. Patients often feel unlisted and have difficulty getting out of bed in the morning. In addition, it is difficult to fall asleep and stay asleep. In most cases, there is hunger and excess thirst. As a result, sufferers have to urinate frequently and often urinate in very small amounts. Hyperglycemia can also affect the skin, leading to dry and rough skin. Wound healing is usually handicapped and injuries open up repeatedly. Also, it has common itching of the skin mainly on the arms and back. Elevated blood sugar levels can also cause headaches, nausea, and vomiting. There is an increased susceptibility to colds and other infections. Externally, hyperglycemia may be manifested by reddened skin and a scalp due to ketones in the urine, inhalation one takes on the smell of acetone. Removal of nail polish Eyes often has red or black rim shapes around the eyes. In a severe course, the patient loses consciousness and goes into a trance.

Diagnosis and course

People with diabetes temporarily develop hyperglycemia. After proper diagnosis of diabetes, the doctor will determine the best blood glucose level for the patient. Through medication and food, the patient tries to maintain these levels. The closer he gets to this level, the better his feelings will be. To control blood glucose levels, people with diabetes can also sit at home and check their levels every day. Special devices exist for this purpose. Thus, if there are symptoms of hyperglycemia, it can be dealt with directly. In practice, one more test is usually performed three to four times by a doctor. It establishes how consistent blood glucose values ​​were in previous months and can be a guide to controlling whether a patient has hyperglycemia "in control".



Elevated blood glucose levels can cause a variety of symptoms and complications. In most cases, the infected person needs to urinate frequently to compensate for the excess sugar and to consume large amounts of fluids. This complaint can also have a negative effect on the psyche, leading to depression or other psychological stimuli. The patient's skin and mouth become dry and most sufferers experience nausea and vomiting. It is not uncommon for dizziness and loss of consciousness to occur as well. Due to the reading during the fainting spell, the affected person may injure himself. In addition, mental disorders can occur, including visual disturbances. In the worst case, the affected person becomes a so-called diabetic coma. Hyperglycemia can be treated relatively well. In most cases, there is no need for treatment so that the affected person can fight the symptoms through a healthy lifestyle. Without treatment, hyperglycemia can lead to organ damage and eventual death. No other complications occur and longevity is not usually reduced by hyperglycemia.

When should you see a doctor?

Indicate symptoms such as frequent urination, increased thirst, and dry skin diabetes. If symptoms persist for a long time, a doctor should be consulted. If more symptoms of hyperglycemia appear, such as an attack of weakness, visual disturbances, or confusion, medical advice is needed. Patients with diabetes Eating an unbalanced diet and maintaining a normal unhealthy lifestyle are especially susceptible to hyperglycemia. People with the above symptoms should seek immediate medical attention from their family and seek the advice of a nutritionist. In the case of pronounced symptoms, the prescribed medication usually needs to be adjusted. Often the medications are poorly adjusted or the individual diet must be adapted. If a patient experiences symptoms of a heart attack or falls into a diabetic coma, an emergency physician should be called. First-aid measures must be administered until medical assistance arrives. After that, an extensive examination of the infected person is required at the hospital. The cause of the collapse must be determined and corrected to prevent further complications.

Treatment and therapy

Treatment for hyperglycemia The treatment is in the hands of the patient himself and of course it should be run every day. It consists mostly of a healthy and balanced lifestyle. Physical activity and sports generally have a very positive effect on blood glucose levels. Additionally, prescribed medications should always be taken according to the doctor's advice. A diet plan should also be followed to avoid hyperglycemia as it significantly reduces the number of sugary foods. In case of any uncertainty about blood glucose levels or minor symptoms of hyperglycemia, the patient should be measured to change his values ​​over time. Independent injection of insulin into the bloodstream may also be required if the body's own production is no longer sufficient. The serious effects of hyperglycemia can be brought to the emergency room. There, dehydration is often organized, as well as a lack of supply of electrolyte cells and direct administration of insulin into the bloodstream.

Perspectives and previews

The diagnosis of hyperglycemia is determined by the patient's individual health criteria as well as his or her contribution to improving his or her health condition. Underlying hyperglycemia is diabetes. According to the current treatment options, it has a long-term course. Despite all efforts, there is currently no cure. Nevertheless, by restructuring their lifestyle and diet, patients can achieve significant relief from their symptoms and control their own hyperglycemia. Typically, the diagnosis of diabetes leads to long-term therapy with a form of drug treatment. If the drug is discontinued after the occurrence of therapy, an immediate recurrence of the symptoms can be expected. New symptoms develop and its comatose state poses additional threats to health. In addition, without treatment, the life expectancy of the affected person is reduced. If the treatment plan is adhered to and the patient's lifestyle changes, then the prognosis is good. This is especially true if no other disease is present and there are no complications. If secondary symptoms or secondary disease develop, the overall diagnosis deteriorates, as some diseases are considered incurable, especially in particular, impaired vision or organ damage that worsens the patient's overall health and overall longevity.


To prevent hyperglycemia, the patient should initially adhere to his diet plan. For people with diabetes, when and how much to eat is especially important for controlling their blood glucose levels. Blood glucose levels need to be measured independently on a regular basis depending on the treatment. It is usually necessary to change the dose of medication as the scope of physical activity changes.


Follow up care

Care for hyperglycemia is followed by precautionary measures and further prevention of hyperglycemia. For this purpose, the necessary medicines should be taken regularly and according to the doctor's orders. Medicine should always be at hand no matter where you are. It is advisable to inform friends, acquaintances, colleagues and, if necessary, other people about the risk of hyperglycemia, so that clarity and proper treatment can be given more quickly in case of emergency. People close to the patient should be made aware of the symptoms of hyperglycemia. A separate emergency plan can also be made. In addition, close attention should be paid to proper nutrition and adequate exercise. Particular attention should be paid to adequate fluid intake on a daily basis. In everyday life, stressful situations should be reduced if possible, or at best avoided altogether. The stimulation causes hormone secretion, which causes the kidneys to raise blood sugar levels. Health should always be sought and infections should be recognized and treated. Infection raises blood glucose levels. Regular and conscientious blood glucose monitoring should also take place. The measuring device used for this measurement should also be checked regularly to make sure it is working properly to avoid erroneous measurement results.

You can do it yourself

In hyperglycemia, there is an increase in the amount of sugar in the blood of a person suffering from a lack of concentrated insulin. To fight this high blood sugar, the sufferer must follow a strict diet, which is preceded by a physician and/or nutritionist. Have been discussed with. Foods and beverages that contain a high proportion of sugars should be avoided. According to the glycemic index, white flour or fruit juices increase the effect of blood sugar on foods. On the other hand, beans and their use the nuts are recommended because they raise the blood sugar level a bit. Adequate exercise through sports can additionally supplement this diet. Often, hyperglycemia is a symptom of diabetes. In this case, the infected person must determine and document the blood glucose level and have the same time each day. Also, the infected person should inject himself with insulin using a regular insulin pen. An alternative is the insulin pump, which the patient always carries with him and which regularly injects insulin independently. Hyperglycemia can also be triggered by other factors. One of the causes of hyperglycemia is stress. In this case, the infected person should take it easy, get regular rest and get enough sleep.

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